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It is trite in legal practice that the Courts pronounce judgments based on the issues and arguments raised before them by the parties. The Court may seek clarity on certain points from the witnesses, legal representatives or the parties themselves, but what the Court will not do is to solicit a specific pleading (point not at issue) from either of the parties alternatively to seek the raising of an issue that has not been raised by either of the parties during the pleadings stage or the trial itself, as doing so would be tantamount to the Court getting involved or taking sides in the matter before it.
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Paying less at the till than the displayed price on the shelf is not only pocket friendly, but comes with good feelings too. Some of us have encountered situations where, upon the till operator scanning a product, informs you that the product has actually been marked down and therefore you owe less than what you thought. However, what we may all agree on is that finding out at the till that the product costs more than the displayed price is unacceptable. The question then becomes, which price should you pay?
South Africa recently commemorated Human Rights Day on 21 March 2022. The regard for human rights is an important cornerstone of a healthy democracy. It puts paid therefore, that the Bill of Rights occupies a prominent place in our Constitution. As part of the commemoration, we shall briefly discuss the rights of accused persons in criminal litigation.
Was it not the German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg who, upon being told that Great Britain had declared war against German for its violation of Belgium’s neutrality in 1914, referred to the Treaty of London of 1839 as a “scrap of paper?” Had assurances not been given by the leading powers in Europe in the 1800s to guarantee the neutrality of Belgium in case of conflict in Europe?
The existence of an employment relationship is usually evidenced by an employment contract, which sets out the terms and conditions of such employment relationship. This is encouraged as it makes things easier for the parties to refer thereto, should a need arise in future. However, there are instances where parties are supposedly in an employee-employer relationship, albeit without a contract of employment signed between them. In subsequent disputes, how do adjudication forums deal with such situations?
Upon the registration of a private company, it assumes its own distinct legal personality, separate from its shareholders who in most cases are its Directors. What this means in simple terms is that the company can now enter into contracts, sue and be sued in its own capacity. The clearest expression of this principle was held in the landmark case of Salomon v Salomon  A.C. 22. However, the Courts have presided over cases whereby the separate legal personality of a company has been abused to commit fraud, dishonesty and improper conduct.
The legal framework for the prosecution of offences in South Africa is provided for in terms of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Act 108 of 1996 (Constitution), the National Prosecuting Authority Act 32 of 1998 (NPA Act) and the Criminal Procedure Act 51 of 1977 (CPA). As a creature of statute, the National Prosecuting Authority (NPA) is vested with the authority to institute and prosecute criminal proceedings on behalf of the State.
The duty of trustees is to act as guardians of the Trust assets, and to act in the best interests of the Trust and its beneficiaries. The obligations and duties of trustees are fiduciary in nature as per Section 9 of the Trust Property Control Act 57 of 1988.
People are encouraged to execute valid Wills in their lifetime, to make the administration of deceased estates much easier. A will provides for directions on how one prefers their late estate to be administered, thereby preventing disputes amongst the beneficiaries. Most of us have seen contests before the Courts to challenge the validity of Wills, to seek the removal of an Executor or to oppose the competency of an heir to inherit. It is important to execute valid Wills to avoid such instances.
A determination on whether a marriage is valid or not usually becomes key during succession, insurance claiming or divorce proceedings. Not that outside these processes such a determination is unimportant, but that parties have less reason to query such. As an example, where a person dies intestate (without a valid Will) it becomes critical to determine if the deceased was party to a valid marriage or not. In this article, we will discuss the differences between void and voidable marriages, as most people are not familiar with what the difference between the two is.
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